This is Part II in our “Cool Fish, Hot Water” series. I know what you’re thinking, squid aren’t fish, but we weren’t sure we had enough fodder for a “Cool Cephalopod, Hot Water” series, so may the squid forgive us, but today they are fish. -Ed.
Things are heating up in New England’s ocean. Last month Leah Fine posted an outstanding piece on a warming trend in the Gulf of Maine, and the new faces we are starting to see off our coasts as a result. I can make no better introduction to the topic than Leah has already done, so I’m just going to dive right in and talk about another of the newcomers we’ve recently welcomed. Or, more correctly, an occasional visitor that seems to be making itself at home lately.
Longfin squid are no strangers to Atlantic waters, but they usually congregate from southern Georges Bank down to Cape Hatteras. Migrating seasonally, longfin squid spend the colder months offshore along the edge of the continental shelf, and come inshore in the spring as the water warms up, starting in the southern end of their range and proceeding north along the coast to Cape Cod.
But, according to CLF’s Peter Shelley, “Squid have been everywhere on the north shore of Massachusetts these past two summers. People were camped out on Marblehead’s public docks all night, it seemed, removing buckets and buckets of squid every day. Even I could catch them… and they were delicious.”
They are pretty tasty – if you enjoy calamari you’ve probably eaten them yourself. But Peter was surprised to see so many of them lately. “I have never seen them in such swarms before in all my years on the waters here,” he said recently. Peter’s location on the north shore of Massachusetts puts him in a front row seat for observing a range extension of commercially viable concentrations of longfin squid.
He’s not the only one who’s noticing the change. The Gulf of Maine Research Institute has listed longfin squid as an “emerging fishery” of Mid-Atlantic “stocks on the move.” According to their recent report on the topic, “centers of population for butterfish, longfin squid, summer flounder, and black sea bass have been steadily moving north since the 1990s.” They predict that the changes we are seeing in our ocean right now will have “significant effects on fisheries worldwide.” One species moving around a little bit may not seem like a big deal, but when you put that species in its ecosystem context, you can understand why scientists, fishermen, and regulators are getting worried.
Longfin squid have fleeting lives – their entire population is estimated to turn over very six months – but they are an important prey species for some of our commercial and recreational fishing favorites, like striped bass, bluefish, cod, haddock, and flounder. In turn, they rely on a diverse buffet themselves for food. When small they eat plankton, and graduate to crustaceans and small fish like mackerel, herring, and anchovies as they get bigger (is anyone else getting hungry?). They have also been known to eat each other, the little cannibals. In short — they are an important strand of the complex web of life in our ocean.
Nature changes and animals move around all the time, so any one species turning up in an unusual place or in unusual numbers doesn’t necessarily mean a big shift is happening, but the squid are just one of so many species on the go right now, that it’s hard not to worry things are really changing fast in our ocean. It will be challenging to keep up with the changes from commercial, regulatory, and conservation standpoints – but I think we’d all better give it our best shot. Keep checking back over the next few weeks and we’ll update you on more of our newest arrivals in New England’s ocean.