A bowhead whale and calf in the Arctic. Photo by Corey Accardo, courtesy of NOAA.
A bowhead whale and calf in the Arctic. Photo by Corey Accardo, courtesy of NOAA.
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John Kerry, bowhead whales, and Cashes Ledge

Categories: Cashes Ledge | CLF Scoop

 

Two items caught my eye when I was skimming through the Boston Globe recently and, while neither had anything to do with Cashes Ledge, it was the first place that came to mind when I read the stories.

  1. John Kerry is convening a meeting of leaders from around the world this June to discuss global ocean health and climate change – topics that have long been a “personal passion but also the source of political frustration” of our Secretary of State. (Tell me about it!)
  2. A bowhead whale was spotted for the second time in 3 years off the coast of Cape Cod. This is a thousand mile detour south for the polar-dwelling whale.

 

Kerry may be thinking globally, but this bowhead whale is acting locally (welcome to the neighborhood!). Bowhead whales are an Arctic species, but even the northern water is getting warmer. Many Atlantic species from south of Cape Cod are moving north and offshore to deeper water, presumably where the cooler temperatures are more to their liking. But what is an Arctic animal to do when things heat up? Why is this one going south? Is it following food, or just confused by the changing temperature in its home waters?  Is the baseline shifting in New England’s waters?

The effects of climate change are not likely to be simple and predictable. Some, like warming and acidifying ocean water, can be measured and tracked and make reasonable sense. But others, like where animals will go, how their reproduction will change, and what these changes will do to the ecosystems that contain them, are mysteries we are only beginning to examine.

In the face of all this unpredictability and change, it is essential that we leave nature some space to catch up – that we set aside some especially productive areas so our ocean ecosystems have a chance to regenerate, and to find a new balance with some of the old players – the cod, the whales, the sharks, turtles, flounder, anemones, plankton and other full- and part-time residents of New England’s ocean.

You may be wondering why we keep talking about Cashes Ledge. The reason is simple – it is one of the most thriving places in our waters right now. Fish breed and shelter there, where the currents make just the right mix for a rich brew of plankton and kelp to fuel this complicated and lush wilderness .

Protecting it is simple, too. Simple, but not easy.

Which is why we will also keep asking for your help until we can ensure permanent protection of this special place. How can we expect our ocean to keep thriving if we don’t give it the space to do so?

Please join us now to protect Cashes Ledge. If you’ve already signed the petition, consider making a gift to help CLF win this fight for ocean health, so that generations to come can experience the abundance that we once took for granted in New England’s ocean.

marchphoto
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Announcing Our March Photo Contest Winner!

Categories: Photo Contest

Congratulations to f1.8 Photography, our winning photographer for March’s contest! We love the icy shoreline and coastal vegetation featured in this photo, which was taken in Machias, Maine.

Do you have a great photo of New England’s oceans to share?  Enter our photo contest! Each month, Brian Skerry will lead our team of judges to select a winner, who will receive a copy of Brian’s book Ocean Soul.

Entering is easy! Explore New England’s oceans, take some photographs and then share them with our online community on Flickr™. All you need to do is add your photos to the New England Ocean Odyssey group and tag them “PhotoContestNEOO”. Find out more here.

Be sure to check our our New England Ocean Odyssey Facebook page where we’ll continue to post honorable mentions from the photo contest and other great ocean photography.

We look forward to seeing your photos!

Atlantic cod. Credit: NOAA
Atlantic cod. Credit: NOAA
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Commonwealth Loses Lawsuit on Lower Catch Limits

Categories: Talking Fish

Last May on the Boston Fish Pier, Massachusetts’ Attorney General Martha Coakley held a press conference to announce her lawsuit against NOAA over the reduction in catch limits for New England groundfish. Her rhetoric that day was strong:“NOAA’s new regulations are essentially a death penalty on the fishing industry in Massachusetts as we know it.”

With a court decision released on April 8 which denied the Commonwealth’s claims,Coakley’s lawsuit has run its predicted course. Judge Richard Stearns decided that, in setting catch limits for the 2013 fishing year, NOAA had fulfilled its obligations to mitigate economic impacts and consider the best available scientific information. The sharp cuts in catch limits for many groundfish stocks were a response to the severely depleted status of these species. However, instead of recognizing the poor state of fish populations hard figures of groundfish catch records, Coakley doubled down on her anti-NOAA rhetoric in her post-loss statement.

More than a year and a half after a fishery disaster was declared by the Department of Commerce and almost two months after New England received its $33 million allocation in federal fishery disaster funds, it is time for all of Massachusetts’ elected leaders to recognize the environmental fact that decades of overfishing have created a depleted ocean ecosystem and the economic fact that New England fishermen are not landing groundfish because the fish simply are not there. The problems and the challenges will become more difficult before they get any easier—the impacts of climate change are an increasingly significant factor in the change in our ocean ecosystems and our regional fisheries.

It’s time to recognize that we need real solutions such as stopping overfishing, protecting habitat, reducing bycatch and improving ocean management. Recovering our ocean’s health and restoring grossly depleted fish populations is a serious matter in need of honest assessment and discussion. Fisheries management by political interference is affecting thousands of New England families and the health of our ocean.

Kelp Forest at Cashes Ledge; 70-miles off the coast of Maine
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Mountains and forests of New England’s ocean

New Englanders are familiar with the mountains that mark their landscape: the Green or White Mountains in Vermont and New Hampshire, the Berkshires and Holyoke ranges in Western Massachusetts. But mountain ranges also lie beneath New England’s North Atlantic waters, and are equally diverse havens for wildlife as their terrestrial counterparts.

Cashes Ledge is one of New England’s most spectacular mountains, but it happens to be lying 80 miles southeast of Portland. This submerged mountain, known as a seamount, is composed of widely spaced peaks, pinnacles, and knolls with average depths of about 100 feet and its highest peak, Ammen Rock, rises within 40 feet of the surface.

This topography is one of the contributors to Cashes’ ecological richness; the steep angle of the slopes causes an oceanographic phenomenon called internal waves. As currents bring water against the abrupt topographic “high” of the ridge, the layers of plankton in the warmer overlying waters are driven to the bottom, as frequently as 20 times a day. These down-welling plankton layers are pulses of concentrated food that sustain bottom-dwelling organisms and fuel the entire food web.

Along with the constant circulation of nutrients by internal waves, the variety of terrains at Cashes Ledge—rocky banks and granite outcroppings, peaks, and channels, cobble and boulder fields, sand-and-gravel-covered seafloor, and soft bottom areas of mud and silt in the basins—also contributes to its intense complexity of life.

Having so many different spaces for organisms to inhabit increases species diversity. The hard, rocky substrate on Ammen Rock and other pinnacles along Cashes Ledge is home to a variety of plants and animals that vary by depth along the slopes, creating identifiable shallow, intermediate, and deep water zones.

In the shallow zone, which extends from the top of each pinnacle down to a depth of approximately 130 feet, grow forests of laminarian kelp up to 30 feet tall, shifting to shotgun kelp as the depth increases. At this depth, kelp groves alternate with aggregations of sea anemones, and both encrusting and mobile invertebrates proliferate in the profuse protection of the kelp.

In the intermediate zone, suspension-feeding invertebrates begin to predominate, and continue to the bottom of the rock slope at approximately 200-230 feet. As the slope begins to level off between 230-250 feet, the muddy bottom of the deep zone supports a biogenic habitat structure for tube worms, mud anemones, and northern shrimp.

The teeming diversity of seamount ecosystems makes them tempting to deep-sea fishing trawlers, which would drag weighted nets across the mountainous terrain in order to catch the schools of fish which congregate there to breed, lay their eggs, and grow to maturity among the sheltering crags. The rocky cobble and gravel substrates of Cashes Ledge are critical nurseries for juvenile Atlantic cod; its sandy and algal dominated areas serve as habitat for pollock eggs, larvae, and young, and its deep muddy areas are essential habitat for white hake.

The kelp forest that is a signature of Cashes Ledge is quite susceptible to human-induced harm. If stripped by mobile fishing gear or shredded by repeated impact from lines, hooks, traps, or other human influences, the tall kelp forests that grow on the Cashes Ledge pinnacles would take many years to re-achieve their former stature. The diverse ecosystem that depends upon these kelp forests could be completely altered, if not eliminated, during that period of regrowth.

Bottom trawling to catch a few groundfish is “like clear cutting a forest to catch a squirrel,” says New England Ocean Odyssey partner and renowned marine wildlife photographer Brian Skerry, who has witnessed bottom-trawled environments firsthand on his dives.

It is such a unique, valuable, and interdependent ecosystem, Cashes Ledge requires permanent protection from human impingement. As a large area comprising many different types of habitat, Cashes Ledge has much to contribute toward keeping our oceans healthy.

Help keep Cashes Ledge permanently protected by joining our petition today!

Laura Marjorie Miller writes about travel, ocean conservation, Yoga, magic, myth, fairy tales, photography, and other soulful subjects. She is a regular columnist at elephantjournal, a writer at UMass Amherst, and a travel correspondent for the Boston Globe. Her writing has appeared in Parabola and she has features forthcoming in Yankee Magazine and Seven Miles of Steel Thistles. She is based in Massachusetts, where she lives with a cat named Huck.

Lined sea anemones off Cape Ann by Alex Shure. http://www.shureunderwater.com/
Lined sea anemones off Cape Ann by Alex Shure. http://www.shureunderwater.com/
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A charming nightmare? With the lined sea anemone perspective matters.

Categories: Creature Features

Look at this tiny wonderland of delicate, star-shaped, fair-haired anemones – benignly filtering food from the water and setting a lovely ocean ambiance. They could be little whisks that a mermaid might use to make a soufflé. Peaceful, right? Wrong. These dudes are remorseless, parasitic death-bringers who drill into their hosts and eat all their food. Which makes me love them a lot, really.

These lined sea anemones (Edwardsiella lineata) spend part of their lives anchored to the bottom of the ocean, doing what most anemones do, sitting around and eating what the current brings them. Before that, however, when they are but wee larvae, they go on a search-and-destroy rampage of their favorite host, a ctenophore known as the sea walnut, or warty comb jelly. We have lots of ctenophores in New England – you can see them in action in this short video by Alex Shure. Ctenophores may seem pretty hardy in this big swarm, but they are no match for the larval lined sea anemone.

 

Jelly Attack! from Green Diver on Vimeo.

It’s not just what this tiny assassin does, it’s how. Mayhem is a polite word for it. As Casey Diederich, my favorite marine biologist for fact-checking blogs about demented goings-on in the ocean, points out:

“The parasitic larva kind of hangs out in/near the pharynx, part of the digestive cavity of the ctenophore, to steal its food. This means that it must have some way to evade digestion by the ctenophore. If you could evade digestion, why not just enter through the ctenophores mouth? Apparently, the parasitic larva burrows through the outside of the ctenophore, then migrates through the ctenophore’s mesoglea (the “jelly” found in  jellyfish, ctenophores, and other kinds of marine invertebrates), and canal system until it gets to the ctenophore’s gut/pharynx. WHAT??? Nature is a crazy motha.”

And, yes, “crazy motha” is a technical marine biology term.

This is probably not much fun for the ctenophore, which can play the unwilling host to several of these baby anemones at a time, but it’s not all bad news, depending on your perspective.

First of all, the parasitic infection prevents the comb jelly from thriving, and thus reduces its population over time. Ctenophores eat zooplankton, including tiny juvenile fish, like cod and flounder. So it’s possible that the parasitic action of the anemone is helping more of these little fish not get eaten and make it to adulthood. More food for us! In some places over half the local comb jellies are infected with the parasitic anemone.

Secondly – in the northeastern Atlantic, off the coast of Europe, these comb jellies are invasive, and really taking a toll on the native wildlife, so the lined anemones might be preventing even worse devastation to the fisheries in that neck of the ocean.

So, the anemones are the good guys? Well, hold on. The larval form of the lined anemone has been implicated as one of the animals that can cause the annoying “sea-bather’s eruption” – an itchy rash you get sometimes after you swim in the ocean. Also, given how successful they are at life in general, there is concern that the lined anemones themselves might become an invasive nuisance in the northeastern Atlantic.

I guess there are no easy conclusions to draw here. Still, I think it’s safe to say that if these types of animals had blood, the lined anemone’s would be cold. One cold-blooded, crazy motha.